Guralp Systems Limited
MAN-050-0005 - CMG-5TD - Operator's Guide


1. Preliminary Notes 2. Introduction 3. Quick start 4. Setting the gain 5. Operation 6. Calibration 7. Connector pin-outs 8. Specifications 9. Revision History

Section Index: 6.1. The calibration pack 6.2. Calibration methods 6.3. Calibration with Scream!

Chapter 6. Calibration

6.1 The calibration pack

All Güralp sensors are fully calibrated before they leave the factory. Both absolute and relative calibration calculations are carried out. The results are given in the calibration pack supplied with each instrument:

Works Order : The Güralp factory order number including the instrument, used internally to file details of the sensor's manufacture.

Serial Number : The serial number of the instrument

Date : The date the instrument was tested at the factory.

Tested By : The name of the testing engineer.

There follows a table showing important calibration information for he instrument, which shows:

Acceleration Output (Differential) : The sensitivity to acceleration at 1 Hz, in volts per ms-2. Because the CMG-5TD uses a balanced differential output to connect to the digitiser, the signal strength as measured between the +ve and –ve line will be twice the true sensitivity of the instrument. To remind you of this, the sensitivity is given as 2 × (single-ended sensitivity).

Feedback Coil Constant : A constant describing the characteristics of the feedback system. You will need this constant, given in amperes per ms-2, if you want to perform your own calibration calculations (see below.)

Power Consumption : The average power consumption of the sensor during testing, given in amperes and assuming a 12 V supply.

Calibration Resistor : The value of the resistor in the calibration circuit. You will need this value if you want to perform your own calibration calculations (see below.)

6.1.1 Poles and zeroes

Most users of seismometers find it convenient to consider the sensor as a “black box”, which produces an output signal V from a measured input x. So long as the relationship between V and x is known, the details of the internal mechanics and electronics can be disregarded. This relationship, given in terms of the Laplace variable s, takes the form

( V / x ) (s) = G × A × H (s)

In this equation

In the calibration pack, G is the sensitivity given on the first page, whilst the roots zn and pm, together with the normalising factor A, are given in the Poles and Zeros table. The poles and zeros given are measured directly at Güralp Systems' factory using a spectrum analyser.

6.1.2 Frequency response curves

The frequency response of the CG-5TD is described in the normalised amplitude and phase plots provided. The response is measured at low and high frequencies in two separate experiments. Each plot marks the low-frequency and high-frequency cut-off values (also known as –3 dB or half-power points).

If you want to repeat the calibration to obtain more precise values at a particular frequency of interest, or to check that a sensor is still functioning correctly, you can inject calibration signals into the system using a Güralp digitizer or your own signal generator, and record the instrument's response.

6.1.3 Obtaining copies of the calibration pack

Our servers keep copies of all calibration data that we send out. In the event that the calibration information becomes separated from the instrument, you can obtain all the information using our free e-mail service. Simply e-mail with the serial number of the instrument in the subject line, e.g.

Subject: T5215

The server will reply with the calibration documentation in Microsoft Word format. The body of your e-mail will be ignored.

6.2 Calibration methods

Three common calibration techniques are available:

You can perform calibration using the built-in CMG-DM24 digitizer, which can generate step and sinusoidal calibration signals.

6.3 Calibration with Scream!

Calibration is most easily done using a PC running Güralp's Scream! Software. In this section, broadband noise calibration will be used to determine the complete sensor response in one action. Please refer to the CMG-DM24 and Scream manuals for information on other calibration methods.


The accuracy of the results depends on both the amount of data you have selected and on its sample rate. To obtain good-quality results at low frequency, it will save computation time to use data collected at a lower sample rate; although the same information is present in higher-rate streams, they also include a large amount of high-frequency data which may not be relevant to your purposes.

The bbnoisecal script automatically performs appropriate averaging to reduce the effects of aliasing and cultural noise.

6.3.1 Sensor response codes

The table below shows the correct value to use in the Instrument response field of the bbnoisecal dialogue, depending on the type of your instrument.


Sensor type code

Units (V/A)

CMG-5TD, DC – 50 Hz response



CMG-5TD, DC – 100 Hz response



CMG-5TD, DC – 200 Hz response




1. Preliminary Notes 2. Introduction 3. Quick start 4. Setting the gain 5. Operation 6. Calibration 7. Connector pin-outs 8. Specifications 9. Revision History