Guralp Systems Limited
MAN-030-0001 - Güralp 3T Operator's guide
Section Index: 2.1 Options

Chapter 2. Introduction

The Güralp 3T is a three-axis seismometer consisting of three sensors in a sealed case, which can measure the north/south, east/west and vertical components of ground motion simultaneously. Each sensor is sensitive to ground vibrations in the frequency range 0.003 – 50 Hz, a broadband frequency response made possible by advanced force-balance feedback electronics. Because of this wide response range, the 3T can replace many of the instruments conventionally used in a seismic observatory; it also produces true pulse-shape records suitable for modern earthquake mechanism analysis.


The 3T is designed for mounting on a hard, near-horizontal surface well coupled to the bedrock. After levelling and orienting the case, you can perform accurate adjustments internally by sending the instrument control signals. These electronics allow it to compensate for a tilt of up to 3 ° from horizontal.

Once levelled and centred, the 3T will begin operating automatically. It outputs analogue voltages representing ground velocity on balanced differential lines. These voltages can be recorded using a separate logging device or digitiser. For testing and installation purposes, a hand-held control unit is supplied which can monitor the instrument's output.

The seismometer unit is self-contained apart from its 12 Volt power supply. Centring and mass locking can be carried out by sending control signals to the instrument, either through the hand-held control unit or through an attached Güralp digitiser.

Each seismometer is delivered with a detailed calibration sheet showing its serial number, measured frequency response in both the long period and the short period sections of the seismic spectrum, sensor DC calibration levels, and the transfer function in poles/zeros notation.

2.1 Options

2.1.1  Form factors

The Güralp 3T can be supplied in several forms, besides its standard configuration:

Any of these can be supplied with integral digitisers and data modules, allowing the 3T to form a complete, integrated seismic installation. For example, the 3TD is a full-height 3T with an integrated Güralp DM24 digitiser. As an additional option, the 3TD can be ordered with an Integrated State-of-Health Controller, which provides the mass-control functions (normally accessed via the break-out box) directly from controls mounted on the instrument. See section 5.3 for more details.

2.1.2  Output types

The standard 3T has a single 26-pin military-specification waterproof connector for signals, control and power:

Alternatively, the 3T can be supplied with a 100 Bar (10 MPa) waterproof connector of the type used in our borehole instruments. The pin-out for this is given in section 7.3.

2.1.3 Sensor control interface

3T instruments can be fitted with an optional RS232 control interface. The control interface can be used to lock, unlock, and centre the sensor masses, and query mass positions. See section 6.3, for more details.

2.1.4  Sensor response

The 3T can be supplied with a response which is flat to velocity from 100 Hz to any of 0.1 Hz (10 seconds), 0.033 Hz (30 seconds), 0.016 Hz (60 seconds), 0.01 Hz (100 seconds), 0.0083 Hz (120 seconds) or 0.0027 Hz (360 seconds). Alternatively, a hybrid response function may be provided. See Chapter 6 for more details.

If you do not require high-frequency data, a low-pass filter may be installed at any frequency (below 100 Hz) that you specify.